Thursday, September 3, 2020
Houston, TX (Mar. 18, 2009) Ã¢â¬The 2009 WorldFest-Houston gladly presents Food Fight as a major aspect of its honor winning narrative side bar. Food Fight is an interesting glance at how American horticultural arrangement and food creation created in the twentieth century, lighting a California food development that started a scrumptious, counter-insurgency. The narrative dishes up themes including manageable produce, ranchers markets, school lunch programs and downtown gardens. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an insightful, quick paced examination that annals the life and times of Ã¢â¬Ëslow nourishments movementÃ¢â¬â¢ pioneer Alice Waters and her milestone eatery, Chez Panisse, which changed an industry dependent on benefits into a market dependent on healthy flavor. Food Fight is an arresting, keen cavort through the noteworthy ascent of the Organic nourishments pattern. This culinary experience concocts a shrewd insiderÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective on how the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s plates are spurning handled filler nourishments for homegrown, solid produce. Culinary experts Alice Waters, Wolfgang Puck and Suzanne Goin are highlighted. On the off chance that youÃ¢â¬â¢re intrigued by the starting points of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s delightful farmerÃ¢â¬â¢s showcase upheaval, you can look at Food Fight which will screen during the WorldFest-Houston Film FestivalÃ¢â¬â¢s run, April 17-26, at the AMC 30 Dunvale (2949 Dunvale, Houston, TX 77063). Appreciate the most up to date include movie from food lobbyist and screen executive, Chris Taylor, who will be accessible after the review to talk about the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s features! WorldFest Houston, established in 1961, is the third most established Independent film celebration in the United States. This yearly occasion has developed into a serious Independent International film celebration exhibiting the rising stars of tomorrow. This yearÃ¢â¬â¢s 42nd Annual WorldFest (April 17-26, 2009) will highlight: 50 honor winning Indie movies, 100 great short movies, 450 Indie producers from around the world, 6 Master Classes/Film industry courses, 1 Grand Awards Gala and Cocktail Reception with the movie producers and a Closing Day Regatta/Barbecue and VIP NASA/Space Center Houston Tour. Tickets are $6 for a solitary early showing (films before 6 pm) or $10.00 per singleÃ¢ evening confirmation and range upward dependent on bundles that clients buy. Film Buff $100, Silver Screen $150 and extreme VIP Platinum Pass $500. Check www.worldfest.org for subtleties. Tickets will be accessible mid-March on the web and up to theater-limit at show time at the Cinema Box Office. All movies, classes and occasions are available to people in general. Premiere night Prices ~ $20 per individual for Film and Program book. $30 per individual for Film, Program book and Champagne Reception at Renaissance Hotel after the film
Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Discourse on Legalization of Marijuana in Brazil Great morning colleagues. Today I will examine the legitimization of pot in Brazil. I emphatically accept maryjane ought to be sanctioned. I am not here to urge anybody to utilize or not use cannabis. However I do accept that numerous current issues may and can be unraveled by its legitimization. Maryjane is the most famous medication in Brazil after tobacco and liquor. Segregation is the motivation behind why pot has still not been sanctioned. It is as of now demonstrated by popular researchers that pot is not addictive and nobody ever passed on simply because of pot, yet tobacco is addictive and causes in excess of 5,000,000 passings for each year. Be that as it may, because of separation tobacco is acknowledged and maryjane is not. Weed, whenever legitimized, could be utilized as a hotspot for drugs and other useful substances. Without a doubt in nations like England maryjane has been authorized for clinical purposes, it is utilized as a narcotic. The outcomes are extremely satisfying. Ã¢â¬ HempÃ¢â¬ -the plant that pot begins from has bunches of different employments. Efficient drugs can be produced using this plant. Additionally it is very expense proficient to be utilized to deliver other results, for example, shirts, pants, coats, makeup, paper among others. As should be obvious, authorization could even assistance a great deal the Brazilian economy. Everybody is cognizant that pot, even not being legitimate, is utilized what's more, delivered all over. It has become a lasting piece of contemporary society. Do individuals truly believe that the utilization of maryjane is going to stop since it is illicit? On the off chance that it was legitimized, even the government could profit by making pot ... ...of medications, instructed by families and schools, not with explanations, for example, Ã¢â¬Å" donÃ¢â¬â¢t do drugsÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"drugs are terrible for youÃ¢â¬ since these are exceptionally wasteful. I figure crusades ought to be finished by giving choices and indicating the two sides like Ã¢â¬Å"drugs are anything but difficult to reach, and they can cause colossal delight yet there are costs to pay for example, overdose, self destruction, melancholies and even demise, there are a few individuals that handle this and donÃ¢â¬â¢t endure these causes, yet some do endure a great deal, the decision is all yoursÃ¢â¬ . As should be obvious, there are numerous important focuses to help the authorization of cannabis. Savagery, economy, clashes, misuse and numerous different issues would be comprehended and improve. The lives of all Brazilians would be not so much stressing but rather more pleasurable. My last question, if the entirety of this could show signs of improvement, why not authorize cannabis?
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Organization Case MKT 202 Essay 1. Microenvironmental factors include entertainers, who stay near the organization and they influence the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to serve its client. The organization, providers, promoting middle people, client market, contenders, and publics these are a piece of microenvironment. Toyota Prius presentation and relaunch were influenced by a few microenvironmental factors. These elements are talked about beneath: a. Right off the bat, the Toyota Company itself was a significant microenvironmental factor that influenced its item at the earliest reference point. The advertising division of Toyota didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do what's needed limited time exercises for its new vehicle. In a nation like U. S. where as we as a whole realize all SUVs sell likes hotcakes, nobody would truly be intrigued to purchase a dull half breed vehicle. Additionally the office engaged with structuring the item was too feeble to even consider attracting clients from the start. At the point when it was propelled individuals considered Prius to be little, squeezed conservative with a dull plan. Likewise because of its low strength, the pickup time was exceptionally long. The vehicle took 14. 5 seconds just to go arrive at a speed of 60km/hr. Regardless of how much natural inviting and vitality sparing the vehicle was because of low limited time endeavors by the organization and furthermore the dull plan, the presentation of Prius was profoundly influenced. Additionally, regardless of whether the vehicle was commendable a sufficient buy in view of its condition well disposed quality and fuel sparing, enough individuals didnÃ¢â¬â¢t find out about it. Be that as it may, later on, Toyota made its new form and the advertising of the item was raised as the brand picture created. b. Also, as we as a whole know, the nearness of a contender can truly make it difficult for an organization to situate its item well. During the time Prius was being propelled it needed to confront, Honda as its rival. Honda fruitful propelled its knowledge even before Prius went to the market. Obviously also, vehicles like Hummer, Ford were at that point there before Prius to keep customerÃ¢â¬â¢s consideration towards them. In any case, Toyota differentiated its item from its rival on giving advantages which different contenders werenÃ¢â¬â¢t ready to give at a modest expense. c. Third factor was simply the client, who were completely disposed towards the brands which they have been utilizing for their entire lives like General Motors, Ford and others. So the global markets for Toyota in U. S. were quite powerless from the start. In any case, on the other hand, as new form was created with new style a plan and as the carÃ¢â¬â¢s drive was improved it got customerÃ¢â¬â¢s consideration. 2. Macroenvironmental includes bigger cultural powers, which incorporates segment, monetary, common, innovative, political, and social powers. There were a few macroenvironmental factors, which assumed a job in influencing the presentation and relaunch of Toyota Prius. The components are talked about underneath: a. Right off the bat, segment factors had an impact in influencing Prius. Despite the fact that Baby Boomers and Gen X had individuals who were moderately aged and old and were potential clients for Prius. Be that as it may, the Gen Y incorporated the youthful packs who were more into lively and sharp vehicle, characteristics which Toyota Prius needed. Toyota basically didnÃ¢â¬â¢t communicate in Gen YÃ¢â¬â¢ers language. Be that as it may, Toyota had the option to manage it since individuals from Gen XÃ¢â¬â¢ers had condition cognizant individuals who were a major market for Toyota. b. Also, social elements assumed a major job as well. American culture has been inclined in utilizing 4-wheel drives and they just didnÃ¢â¬â¢t need an unusual looking vehicle to be a piece of their lives. Likewise, individuals perspective on society, under social factor, had an impact as well. A loyalist American would purchase his nations item instead of purchasing items from different nations. Another factor under culture is peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective on association. Organizations like General Motors, Ford, Audi had a more grounded brand picture then Toyota during that timeframe. As the time went, new form came out, Toyota had the option to fit in the way of life and the U. S. government on presenting different motivators on crossover vehicles additionally helped it. c. Thirdly, mechanical factor. Innovation has consistently been there making our lives a superior and there has been such a great amount of rivalry in the market on giving predominant innovation that, some organization experience difficulty to build up a picture against those organizations who have just settled a solid situation in the opposition. Toyota was innovatively mediocre contrasted with its adversaries like Audi, Ford, and GM. Additionally, Prius at its underlying stage was not the vehicle which individuals looked into driving due to its specialized lacking. Low drive, high get time, dull plan these influenced its picture. Toyota had the option to manage it on its new forms. 3. Toyota showcase procedure was first utilized on individuals who were geeks. It concentrated on early adopters, nerds who were pulled in to the progressed new innovation. Geeks were so into the Prius that they began altering it actually and paying a lot of regard for it. Toyota had the option to separate its item such that no other organization could with such an ease. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why Prius turned into the best vehicle at any point utilized in US. In the wake of engrossing enormous incomes from the geeks, it utilized it second form to focus on a more extensive market section. Toyota had the option to serve the greater section which comprised of those individuals who were naturally cognizant and just as those envious of eco-friendliness. Toyota did a colossal measure of spending on media to tell individuals about its subsequent rendition. In future Toyota can improve its technique by bringing the cross breed highlight into a few models of vehicle it has and along these lines making a more prominent deals consequently. Be that as it may, it shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t present the cross breed include in all the vehicles, since if different contenders begins making a similar sort of vehicle and has better brand picture, at that point Toyota can no longer separate its item. In any case, as interest for crossovers go up, Toyota ought to keep up a consistent creation and contribute on making other new sorts for serving different sections and keep up a parity.
Sexual orientation of Animals in Spanish On the off chance that you imagine that manly things in Spanish are constantly utilized with alluding to guys and ladylike things when alluding to females, your supposition would not be right - particularly when discussing creatures. Like most things, the names for about all creatures are either manly or female. For instance, the word for giraffe, jirafa is ladylike, and it tends to be utilized when alluding to any giraffe, regardless of whether male or female. So also, rinoceronte is manly, and it very well may be utilized to allude to rhinoceroses of either sex. The equivalent is finished with individuals. El humano (human) is manly in any event, when alluding to a lady or young lady, and la persona (individual) is female in any event, when alluding to a man or kid. Creatures With Sex-Differentiated Names A few creatures have various names for each sex. For instance, a perro is a male pooch, and a perra is a female canine or bitch. The names dont must be so comparative: a dairy animals is una vaca, while a bull is un toro, despite the fact that they allude to similar types of creature. As in these models, it is normal, in spite of the fact that not all inclusive, for creatures with sex-separated names in Spanish to have separated names in English too. Some different creatures with various names for the genders are: el lagarto (male reptile), la lagarta (female lizard)el elefante (male elephant), la elefanta (female elephant)el caballo (steed), la yegua (mare)el carnero (slam), la oveja (sheep)el gallo (chicken), la gallina (hen)el macho (buck), la cabra (caretaker goat) By and large, the manly structure can be thought of as the default name for the sort of species. Accordingly in the event that you dont know whether a feline is male or female, its fine to allude to it as un gato. Be that as it may, a feline known to be female can be alluded to as una gata. Gatherings of Animals On account of creatures whose names differ with the sex, in the event that you have a gathering of creatures, some female and some male, they ought to be alluded to by the manly plural: consequently los gatos or los perros. Be that as it may, if the name of the creature is constantly ladylike, the female should in any case be utilized: las jirafas (in any event, for a gathering of guys) or las araÃ£ ±as (arachnids). In a not many situations where each sex has an alternate name - they incorporate vaca, cabra, and oveja - the female structure can be pluralized to speak to a gathering. (The equivalent can be valid in English, as steers may casually be alluded to as dairy animals regardless of whether bulls are a piece of the blend.) Macho/Hembra On the off chance that you have to show the sex of a creature with an undifferentiated name, you can include the word macho for male or hembra for female: la jirafa hembra, the female giraffela jirafa macho, the male giraffeel dinosaurio macho, the male dinosaurel dinosaurio hembra, the female dinosaur Note that macho and hembra, nonetheless, are customarily viewed as either things or constant descriptive words. In this manner they don't fluctuate in structure with sexual orientation or number: las jirafas hembra, the female giraffeslas jirafas macho, the male giraffes Despite the fact that treating macho and hembra as perpetual descriptive words is the linguistically protected activity, in actuality, speakers frequently make them plural. You should adhere to the customary structure in formal composition, in any case. Individual Names When alluding to creatures with individual names, (for example, pets), you should utilize descriptors whose sexual orientation coordinates the given name of the creature when utilizing that name as the subject of a sentence: Pablo, la jirafa ms alta del zoo, est enfermo. (Pablo, the zoos tallest giraffe, is sick.)Su hmster negro se llama Elena. Elena es muy guapa. (His dark hamster is named Elena. Elena is exceptionally beautiful. Note the adjustment in language structure contingent upon whether the class name or given name is the syntactic subject.) Key Takeaways The class or species names for most creatures are either manly or ladylike, and the sexual orientation for the creature name is utilized whether a particular creature in male or female.Some creatures have separate names for each sex, for example, a bovine being una vaca and a bull being un toro.When the subject of a sentence is the individual name of a creature, such a pet, the going with modifiers should coordinate the creatures sex as opposed to that of its species name.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Assessment OF PROFITABILITY IN THE CONTEXT OF BANGLADESH BANKING INDUSTRY Nadim Jahangir', Shubhankar Shill2 and Md. Amlan Jahid Haque3 Abstract Loans are the most dangerous resource of a bank, yet these advances assume a crucial job in banks' benefit. Banks Ã¢â¬Ëprofitability relies upon the aftereffects of certain parameters and among them Bank b Return on Equity, Market Size, Market Concentration Index, and Bank RiskMeasure are generally utilized and the equivalent are explored in the Bangladesh Banking Industry in this investigation for a time of the most recent six years. The information originates from the yearly reports of individual banks recorded in Dhaka StockExchange (DSE) and from the Bangladesh bankb distributed insights book (Scheduled Banks Statistics). Relationship lattice and stepwise relapse have been utilized with the end goal of information examination. The analysisfinds that advertise fixation and bank b chance do little to clarify bank b return on value, while bankb showcase size is the main variable giving a clarification to banks return on value with regards to Bangladesh. Presentation The tmhtional measure ofprofitabilitythrough investor's value is very extraordinary in banking industry ffom some other part ofbusiness, where advance to-store proportion functions as a generally excellent ndicator ofbanks' profitabiJity as it delineates the status of benefit liabilitymanagement ofbanks. Be that as it may, banks' hazard isn't just connected with this benefit obligation the board yet additionally identified with development opportunity. Smooth development safeguards higher future comes back to holders and there lies the gainfulness which implies current benefits as well as future returns too. In this way, advertise size and market fixation list alongside come back to value and advance to-store proportion hold onto the consideration of breaking down the banks' productivity. The financial business of Bangladesh is a blended one involving na tionalized, private and outside ommercial banks. Numerous endeavors have been made to clarify the presentation of these banks. Understanding the exhibition ofbanks requires information about the productivity and the relationshps between factors like market size, bank's hazard and bank's market size with benefit. Surely, the exhibition assessment of business banks is particularly significant today in view of the wild rivalry. The banking (1) Dr. Nadim Jahangir (Associate Professor) holds a Ph. D. in Management from Australian Catholic University and now is teachmg in the Independent University of Bangladesh. (2) Shubhankar Shill (Lecturer) holds Master certificate in Finance from Dhaka University (Bangladesh) and now is instructing in the School of Business, Independent University of Bangladesh. (3) Md. Arnlan Jahid Haque (Lecturer) holds a Master certificate in Management from Rajshahi University (Bangladesh) and now is instructing in the School of Business, Independent University o f Bangladesh. 36 ABAC Journal Vol. 27, No. 2 (May Ã¢â¬ August, 2007, pp. 36 Ã¢â¬ 46) Examination of PI .ofitability in the Context ofBangladesh Banking Indusqr industry is encountering significant change throughout the previous two decades. It is getting basic for banks to persevere through the weight emerging from oth interior and outside variables and end up being beneficial. Until mid 1985, Bangladesh had a highlyrepressed money related division (Chowhdury, 2002). Banks and other money related organizations were completely claimed by the administration. In the early piece of 1980, Bangladesh went into the IMF and World Bank change programs and the procedure of privatization and progression picked up force impaired ofthe World Bank and the IMF. From that point forward the financial business of Bangladesh has become an appealing ground for both local and outside speculators to participate in the game. It is of most extreme significance that these layers substantiate themselves ga inful. Andrews (1975) noticed that it is fundamental to comprehend the systems to accomplish more prominent productivity. In accordance with this, the present examination puts forth an attempt to uncover those columns which are significant constituents of techniques and objectives. This paper means to dissect the significance of inner and outside variables for banks return on value. In particular, the reason for the investigation is to intently look at the connections of bank's market focus, advertise size, and bank's hazard with return on value. The expectation is to choose which among the potential determinants seem, by all accounts, to be mportant. Hassan, Khan, and Haque, (1 995) recently analyzed banks' benefit thinking about money related effect and focus in setting of Bangladesh. Anyway Fraser, Philips, and Rose (1974) expressed that presentation of business banks ought not be estimated by a solitary intermediary however by a lot of factors which are together dictated by show case structure, request, and different elements. Subsequently, the present investigation plans to propose and look at a system fusing bank's market focus, bank's market size, bank's hazard, and distinguish the connections of these factors with bank's arrival on value in setting f Bangladesh. Writing Review Market Size Cravens (2000) expounded that, showcase size is generally estimated by money, deals andlor unit deals for any item advertise and furthermore in determined timeframe other size estimation incorporate the quantity of purchasers' normal buy amount, recurrence of procurement for any item arranged market. Therefore the key proportions of market size are advertise potential, deals conjecture, and piece of the overall industry. In another examination on banking renewal Thorsten and Ross (2002) estimated the market size ofbanks against the GDP and to gauge bank size, Thorsten and Ross (2002) utilized bank credit to he private part as a portion of GDP. Demirguc-Kunt and Maksimo vic (2002) proposed that the degree to whichvarious money related, lawful, and different elements (e. g. debasement) influence bank benefit is firmly connected to estimate. Furthermore, as Short (1 979) contended, size is firmly identified with the capital sufficiency of a bank since generally banks will in general raise more affordable capital and, subsequently, show up increasingly beneficial. Luthria and Dhar (2005) characterized advertise size as the size of financial action over which operators can contact. They attempted to gauge advertise size or space by national outskirts. Huge space makes the potential or procuring economies of scale and the extension for specialization too. It requires explicit interests in physical and human capital, just as advertising channels, compelled by moderate moving monetary action. Market Concentration The fixation perspective is especially significant for the change economies and it has been normally utilized as the estimation of Nadim Jrrhang ir. Shubhankar ShiN and 1Mn. Amlan Jahid Haque benefit ofbanlung industry. Atbanasoglou, Brissims, and Delis (2005) contend that financial frameworks are profoundly focused, with little partition among focal and business banking ctivities so as to encourage the banks' job in the arranging procedure. Ahighly thought financial area brings about market power for the banks. Instead of flawless rivalry, banks having imposing business model force would prompt a harmony described by higher advance expenses and a littler amount of loanable hnds (Cetorelli and Gambera, 2001). As indicated by Alzaidanin (2003) when an enormous portion of the matter of a given industry is constrained by hardly any huge firms or gathered in a couple of pockets the circumstance is normally named as a record ofconcentration. Nonetheless, Deidda and Fattouh (2002) demonstrated hypothetically just as mpirically that the connection between banking focus and profit for value relied upon the degree of monetary turn of events. All the more explicitly, banking fixation adversy affected profit for value just in low salary nations. For high pay nations, there was no noteworthy impact between the two factors. Furthermore, Beck, Maksimovic, and Vojislav (2003) found that this impact is particularly solid if a state has a frail lawful framework, significant level ofcorruption and a low level ofeconomic and monetary turn of events. Since these components are valid for probably a portion of the economies viable, ne would anticipate that low financial focus should encourage return on value. Bank Risk According to Allen (1 997), banks will in general spotlight on zones where they accept they have a near bit of leeway to augment proficiency in making credits. This methodology makes banks concentrate on geographic, industry explicit socioeconomics, and other market qualities to work. Calomiris and Karceski (1 998) noticed that broadening and various levels ofriskyness is the outcome ofdifferences across bank s in the scale oftheir activities. As financial conditions shift across various districts and mechanical divisions, consequently ank riskyness and return on value additionally fluctuate across various locales. Gerlach, Peng, and Shu (2004) adopted an alternate strategy in characterizing Banks' hazard. Poor administration characteristics in wasteful foundations tend to cany higher hazard (credit chance, working danger, and liquidity). The credit chance on any individual advance can be separated into two parts, the likelihood that the borrower will default, and the misfortunes brought about in the occasion ofdefault. In a previous examination on resource nature of business banks Stafon (2000) found that bank return on value driven fundamentally by changes in Net Interest Margins NIMs) and credit arrangement which thus were dictated by resource quality. Be that as it may, Greusning and Bratanovic (2003) uncovered that arrival on value is a noteworthy marker of a bank's serious situatio n in banking markets and of the nature of its administration. The creators further explained that the pay proclamation ofa bank is a key wellspring of data on a bank's arrival on value, uncovers the sources ofa bank's gaining and their amount and quality just as the nature of the bank's credit portfolio and the focal point of its uses. Connection between showcase fixation and banks Ã¢â¬Ëreturn on ecjuitv The mpirical discoveries on the relatio
Wednesday, August 12, 2020
How the Stigma of Mental Health Is Spread by Mass Media Basics Print How the Stigma of Mental Health Is Spread by Mass Media By Naveed Saleh, MD, MS twitter linkedin Naveed Saleh, MD, MS, is a medical writer and editor covering new treatments and trending health news. Learn about our editorial policy Naveed Saleh, MD, MS Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Richard Fogoros, MD on October 26, 2017 Richard N. Fogoros, MD, is a retired professor of medicine and board-certified internal medicine physician and cardiologist. He is Verywells Senior Medical Advisor. Learn about our Medical Review Board Richard Fogoros, MD Updated on February 15, 2020 xavierarnau / iStock More in Psychology Basics Psychotherapy Student Resources History and Biographies Theories Phobias Emotions Sleep and Dreaming In the aftermath of an unconscionable act of random violence, many people are inclined to label the perpetrator âcrazy.â Although the criminal may have a mental illness, automatically assigning the label âcrazyâ does a great disservice to people who live with mental illness every day. In reality, somebody with mental illness is much more likely to be a victimâ"rather than a perpetratorâ"of violence.?? Calling a violent offender âcrazyâ spreads a dangerous stereotype and belies the complex relationship between criminality and mental illness. The media teaches us about people with whom we do not routinely interact. This constant flow of data gives us incessant social cues about the nature of other groups of peopleâ"including which groups of people should be praised or scorned. Media portrayals of those with mental illness often skew toward either stigmatization or trivialization. Consequently, all forms of mediaâ"including television, film, magazines, newspapers, and social mediaâ"have been roundly criticized for disseminating negative stereotypes and inaccurate descriptions of those with mental illness. What Is Stigmatization? Stigma happens when some person is viewed as an âother.â This other is denied full social acceptance. Here is how stigma is defined by Ahmedani in a 2011 article titled âMental Health Stigma: Society, Individuals, and the Professionâ: The most established definition regarding stigma is written by Erving Goffman (1963) in his seminal work: Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Goffman (1963) states that stigma is an attribute that is deeply discrediting that reduces someone from a whole and usual person to a tainted, discounted one (p. 3). The stigmatized, thus, are perceived as having a spoiled identity (Goffman, 1963, p. 3). In the social work literature, Dudley (2000), working from Goffmanâs initial conceptualization, defined stigma as stereotypes or negative views attributed to a person or groups of people when their characteristics or behaviors are viewed as different from or inferior to societal norms.?? Of note, stigmatization is so entwined with the media that researchers have used newspaper articles as a proxy metric for stigma in society. Stigmatization of Mental Illness By the Media Some examples of how the media may stigmatize mental illness include: First, mental illnesses such as schizophrenia are seen as so disruptive to society that those with such conditions must be isolated from society altogether. Second, media accounts focus on the individual with mental illness rather than framing mental illness as a societal issue. Consequently, media consumers are more likely to blame the individual for the illness. Third, people with mental illness suffer from overgeneralization in media portrayals; everybody with a specific condition is expected to portray the same characteristics of the disease. For instance, depictions that all people with depression are suicidal, and all people with schizophrenia hallucinate. (In reality, only between 60% and 80% of people with schizophrenia experience auditory hallucinations, and a smaller number experience visual hallucinations.) Fourth, media portrayals discount the fact that many people with mental illness donât need to disclose this condition to everyone around them. Insteadâ"whether by intention or notâ"mental illness often goes unrecognized. Portrayals in the media, however, present situations where everyone knows about a characterâs mental illness, and this mental illness is no longer concealed. Fifth, the media portrays mental illness as being untreatable or unrecoverable. Trivialization of Mental Illness By the Media Here are some possible ways that trivialization can rear its head in the media. First, the media promotes mental illness as either not being severe or being less severe than it really is. For instance, many people with anorexia feel like their condition is made out to be less severe than it really isâ"in part because people with the condition who are portrayed in the media minimize its serious and hide severe consequences. In reality, the death rate of anorexia is the highest death rate of an eating disorder. In an oft-cited meta-analysis published in JAMA Psychiatry in 2011, Arcelus and colleagues analyzed 36 studies representing 17,272 individual patients with eating disorders and found that 755 died.?? Second, mental illness is oversimplified in the media. For instance, people with OCD are depicted as being overly concerned with cleanliness and perfectionism. However, the obsessive thoughts that drive these compulsions are overlooked. Third, the symptoms of mental illness are portrayed in the media as beneficial. For example, in the television series Monk, the protagonist is a detective who has OCD and pays close attention to detail, which helps him solve the crime and advance his career. Fourth, using media channels, people without disabilities mock people with disabilities by appropriating mental-illness terminology. For instance, the hashtag OCD (#OCD) is commonly used on Twitter to describe attention to cleanliness or organization. Depictions of Schizophrenia in Film Probably the most disparaging stigmatizations of mental illness in media lie in the film portrayals of antagonists with mental illness. In particular, characters with schizophrenia are presented as âhomicidal maniacsâ in âslasherâ or âpsycho killerâ movies. Such portrayals disseminate misinformation about the symptoms, causes, and treatment of people with schizophrenia and other forms of severe mental illness. Of note, popular movies have been shown to exert potent influences on attitude formation. In a 2012 article titled the âPortrayals of Schizophrenia by Entertainment Media: A Content Analysis of Contemporary Movies,â Owen analyzed 41 movies released between 1990 and 2010 for depictions of schizophrenia and found the following:?? Most characters displayed positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Delusions were featured most frequently, followed by auditory and visual hallucinations. A majority of characters displayed violent behavior toward themselves or others and nearly one-third of violent characters engaged in homicidal behavior. About one-fourth of characters committed suicide. Causation of schizophrenia was infrequently noted, although about one-fourth of movies implied that a traumatic life event was significant in causation. Of movies alluding to or showing treatment, psychotropic medications were most commonly portrayed. These portrayals were wrong and damaging for several reasons, including the following: Portrayals of schizophrenia in recent movies often focused on the positive symptoms of the disease, such as visual hallucinations, bizarre delusions, and disorganized speech. These symptoms were presented as commonplace when, in fact, negative symptoms, such as poverty of speech, decreased motivation, and flat affect, are more common.Several movies spread the false stereotype that people with schizophrenia are prone to violence and unpredictable behavior. Moreover, some movies presented people with schizophrenia as being âpossessed.â These violent stereotypes poison viewers and engender harsh negative attitudes toward mental illness.In these movies, 24% of the characters with schizophrenia committed suicide, which is misleading because in reality only between 10% and 16% of people with schizophrenia commit suicide during the course of a lifetime.Characters with schizophrenia were usually depicted as white males. In reality, schizophrenia disproportionately affects African America ns. Furthermore, schizophrenia affects men and women almost equally.In a few movies, schizophrenia is depicted as secondary to traumatic life events or curable by love, which are both misrepresentations of the disease. On the bright side, Owen found that not all the information presented about schizophrenia in the modern film was stigmatizing.?? For example, in more than half of the movies analyzed, the use of psychiatric medications was depicted or alluded to. Furthermore, nearly half the characters with schizophrenia were depicted as poor, which jells with the epidemiological data that suggest people of higher socioeconomic means are less likely to experience schizophrenia. Ultimately, negative portrayalsâ"especially violent negative portrayalsâ"of people with schizophrenia and other severe types of mental illness in the media contribute to stigmatization, stereotyping, discrimination, and social rejection. What Can Be Done About the Stigma of Mental Health We still need to better understand how these messages are disseminated by the media before we can act to rectify them. Currently, there is limited research examining how the media promotes mental-illness stereotypes, stigmatization, and trivialization. Nevertheless, certain suggestions regarding how to improve the depiction of those with mental illness in the media have been made. Analyze mass-media production procedures to better understand the current practices, needs, values, and economic realities of screenwriters, producers, and journalists. For instance, understanding the balance between being newsworthy or emotionally arousing and verifiable.Present mental illness only when relevant to the story.Prefer non-individualized descriptions of mental illness and instead focus on the societal aspects.Include expert input from psychiatrists during production.Implement a mental health short course when training journalists.Use mental-health terminology with precision, fairness, and expertise. As individuals who consume copious amounts of mass media and engage on social media routinely, the best thing that we can do is to stop using words like âcrazyâ and âderangedâ in a derogatory or flippant fashion. Moreover, itâs best not to make psychiatric diagnoses outside of a clinical setting. Only a specialist can make a diagnosis of OCD, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and so forth. By labeling without proof, we hurt those who really live with mental illness on a daily basis.
Thursday, June 11, 2020
In the essay Mr. Bennet and Mrs. Brown, Virginia Woolf proclaims that human character changed around the year 1910, a statement that serves as the jumping off point for her insights into the modernist movement. Much of her later writing explores just how human character changed in the early twentieth century. In her first experimental novella, JacobÃ¢â¬â¢s Room, Woolf uses the contemporary city and technology to illustrate just one aspect of how human life changed. Where once people spent their lives within ten miles of the rural farm area where they grew up, now humans lived packed together in dramatically different spaces. Woolf notes that if one were to simply watch the city, they would be Ã¢â¬Å"choked with observations,Ã¢â¬ (Woolf, 91). To deal with this new overwhelming reality, Ã¢â¬Å"nature and society between them have arranged a system of classification which is simplicity itself; stalls, boxes, amphitheatre, gallery,Ã¢â¬ (91). Comprised of both organic and inorganic parts, the city works to create a cohesive unit that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t quite uniform, but also doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessitate individuality. As a result, the way humans interacted with one another fundamentally changed, moving away from a more fragmented but individual connection to a much more massified but shallow sense of connection that allowed more individuals to interact than ever. The change in interaction can be explicitly seen in the introduction of new technology, like the omnibus, into human spaces. In a passage in the middle of the novel, Woolf notes that Ã¢â¬Å"human life is very tolerable on the top of an omnibus in Holb orn, when the policeman holds up his arm and the sun beats on your back,Ã¢â¬ (86). The the emphasis on Ã¢â¬Å"human lifeÃ¢â¬ as opposed to just life serves as a reminder that human life isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the only entity in the new city. The intersection of three entitiesÃ¢â¬âthe omnibus, a form of technology, the policeman, a representation of a man made institution, and the sun, an organic matterÃ¢â¬âin this sentence highlights the role of the city in the background of human interaction. Indeed, the omnibus serves as a key tool for understanding the role of technology in the modern city. Woolf gives an account of an omnibus journey that highlights how technology both connects and separates individuals. The passage begins in a very un-Woolfian tone, using truncated, staccato sentences slotted together in a monotonous way. Then, once Ã¢â¬Å"the proximity of the omnibuses gave the outside passengers an opportunity to stare into each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s facesÃ¢â¬ , the sentences suddenly begin to stretch out into the familiar Woolfian stream of consciousness style. The rhythm of the passage is truncated until the introduction of the omnibus, and so is the level of human connection. However, it is important to note that technology, in this case the bus, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t magically create a deep connection between humans. Indeed, it appears that despite bringing people together in a literal and physical way, any connections being made are surface level: Ã¢â¬Å"Each had his past shut in him like the leaves of a book known to him by heart, and his friends could only read the titleand the passengers going the opposite way could read nothing at allÃ¢â¬ (Woolf, 85). That old saying about judging a book by its cover becomes literal here, as each passenger can only view others as their appearance, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ëa man with a red moustacheÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ëa young man smoking a grey pipeÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (85). What is left is a pervasive loneliness, despite being together in a crowded public space, so when the omnibus Ã¢â¬Å"jerkedÃ¢â¬ on, Ã¢â¬Å"each person felt relief at being a little nearer to his journeyÃ¢â¬â¢s endÃ¢â¬ (85). This greater sense of anonymity is key to understanding how technology transforms human connection. As humans come together in physical space, the need for individuality decreases. Instead, a more massified sense of ownership arises: Ã¢â¬Å"the streets belong to them; the shops; the churches; theirs the innumerable desks; the stretched office lights; the vans are theirs, and the railway slung high above the spaceÃ¢â¬ (87). Underpinning these traditionally public spaces is the continual iteration of the possessive word Ã¢â¬Å"theirÃ¢â¬ highlighting the fact that these spaces actually belong to an anonymous corpus. While the unnamed body endows the city with life, its identity is inextricably bound to the material, inorganic world, and idea which Woolf reinforces later in the passage describing the Ã¢â¬Å"innumerable overcoats of the quality prescribed hung empty all day in the corridorsÃ¢â¬ (88). The coats that hang empty serve as a reminder that the individual, in this case, the worker, only exists insofar as they fill out a material space. That the object in question is a coat is significant as well; it is the outer shell, the husk of a body. Whereas once individuals were body and soul, now only their exterior is important. There is also suggestion of interchangeability, that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter who fills the space as long as they fit the mold. Furthering this sense of dehumanization is the fact that these actions are executed without actors: Ã¢â¬Å"each was exactly filled, and the little figures, split apart into trousers or moulded into a single thickness, jerked rapidlyÃ¢â¬ (88 ). The verbs here, Ã¢â¬Å"filled,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"split apart,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"moulded,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"jerkedÃ¢â¬ evoke a mechanical process. This again highlights the sense of dehumanization of the laborers; their actions are without intent, their existence like that of an assembly line. The use of the word Ã¢â¬Å"conveyedÃ¢â¬ a sentence later emphasizes this idea, and leads the reader along the assembly line Ã¢â¬Å"into darknessÃ¢â¬ (88). As an author working in a new mode of expression within the modernist movement, a woman pushing the boundaries of gender, and a human navigating life in the post war era, Woolf dedicated much of her work to exploring that change in human character that she so notably pointed out in Mr. Bennet and Mrs. Brown. The city was served as one means through which to do so. The introduction of new institutions into the city, most notably that of the mechanical world and technology, forever altered the way humans interacted with each other. While individuality became less crucial to the operations of the city, technology offered a new way for more people to connect with each other than ever before.